Prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios y riesgo de obstrucción al flujo aéreo en Ginebra - Valle del Cauca

  • Alirio Bastidas Goyes Universidad de la Sabana
  • Jorge Villán Gaona Cruz Roja Colombiana.
  • Valeria Betancourt López Fuerza Aérea Colombiana
  • Andrea Suarez Niño
  • Gustavo Adolfo Hincapié Díaz Clínica del Country
Palabras clave: Signos y síntomas respiratorios, tos, disnea, test de función respiratoria, prevalencia

Resumen

Antecedentes y Objetivo: La prevalencia de los principales síntomas respiratorios en Ginebra (Valle del Cauca) es desconocida. Este estudio busca investigar la prevalencia de disnea, tos, sibilancias y expectoración en Ginebra, un municipio rural de Colombia.

Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal, con una estrategia de muestreo por conglomerados para tener una muestra representativa de adultos mayores de 40 años. Cada paciente fue entrevistado con dos cuestionarios, el cuestionario de síntomas respiratorios Ferris validado para el español y el cuestionario de función pulmonar (LFQ), de este último, un puntaje menor o igual a 18 puntos fue considerado como riesgo de obstrucción al flujo aéreo. El análisis de datos fue realizado con software estadístico, el tamaño de muestra fue de 115 sujetos (prevalencia 50%, precisión 10% y porcentaje de pérdida del 20%), las variables cuantitativas se resumieron en frecuencias y porcentajes y las variables cuantitativas en medianas y rangos intercuartílicos, la prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios se calculó con un intervalo de confianza del 95% y se realizaron cruces exploratorios entre las variables de síntomas respiratorios y antecedentes exposicionales.

Resultados: 146 sujetos, 2 pérdidas, mediana de edad 60,5 años (RIQ:22), 52,1% hombres, prevalencia de tos 18,1% (IC95%:11,8-24,3), expectoración 20,1% (IC95%:13,9-27,1), sibilancias 28,2% (IC95%:21,1-35,9), disnea 33,3% (IC95%:25-41), personas a riesgo de limitación flujo aéreo 19,4% (IC95%:14,2-28,4). En la realización de cruces exploratorios se obtuvo una relación entre el número de paquetes año y la presencia de tos (p=0,008), antecedente de exposición a leña y tos (p=0,008), número de paquetes año y expectoración (p=0,018), sibilancias y consumo de cigarrillo (p=0,047), disnea y antecedente de enfermedad coronaria (p=0,028), disnea y antecede de hipertensión arterial (p=0,037).

Conclusión: La disnea es el síntoma respiratorio más frecuente en pacientes mayores de 40 años en Ginebra (Valle del Cauca), el antecedente de tabaquismo se relacionó con tos y sibilancias. La utilización de un cuestionario de síntomas respiratorios puede ser útil para identificar pacientes con riesgo de obstrucción al flujo aéreo cuando se compara con el auto-reporte de enfermedad respiratoria.

Biografía del autor/a

Alirio Bastidas Goyes, Universidad de la Sabana
Internista, Neumólogo, Epidemiólogo Clínico. Profesor Clínico Universidad de la Sabana. Bogotá-Colombia
Jorge Villán Gaona, Cruz Roja Colombiana.
Médico y Cirujano Cruz Roja Colombiana. Bogotá - Colombia
Valeria Betancourt López, Fuerza Aérea Colombiana
Médico y Cirujano de la Base Aérea German Olano, Colombia. Fuerza Aérea Colombiana
Andrea Suarez Niño
Médico y Cirujano del Hospital de Capitanejo – Santander-Colombia.
Gustavo Adolfo Hincapié Díaz, Clínica del Country
Internista, Neumólogo – Clínica del Country. Bogotá - Colombia.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Alirio Bastidas Goyes, Universidad de la Sabana
Internista, Neumólogo, Epidemiólogo Clínico. Profesor Clínico Universidad de la Sabana. Bogotá-Colombia
Jorge Villán Gaona, Cruz Roja Colombiana.
Médico y Cirujano Cruz Roja Colombiana. Bogotá - Colombia
Valeria Betancourt López, Fuerza Aérea Colombiana
Médico y Cirujano de la Base Aérea German Olano, Colombia. Fuerza Aérea Colombiana
Andrea Suarez Niño
Médico y Cirujano del Hospital de Capitanejo – Santander-Colombia.
Gustavo Adolfo Hincapié Díaz, Clínica del Country
Internista, Neumólogo – Clínica del Country. Bogotá - Colombia.

Referencias Bibliográficas

Hernandez LJ, Aristizabal G, Quiroz L, Medina K, Rodriguez N, Sarmiento R, et al. Air pollution and respiratory illness in children aged less than 5 years-old in Bogota, 2007. Revista de salud publica. 2013;15(4):503-16.

Quiroz L, Hernandez LJ, Agudelo CA, Medina K, Robledo R, Osorio SD. PM10 exposure-related respiratory symptoms and disease in children living in and near five coal-mining areas in the Cesar department of Colombia] Revista de salud publica. 2013;15(1):66-79.

Rodriguez N, Martinez V, Sarmiento R, Medina K, Hernandez LJ. Respiratory disease risk factors in the 5-14 year-old population in an area of Bogota, 2012-2013. Revista de salud publica. 2013;15(3):408-20.

Collazos C, Carrasquilla G, Ibanez M, Lopez LE. Prevalence of respiratory symptomatic in health institutions of Bogota, Colombia. Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2010;30(4):519-29. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v30i4.290

Villamizar LA, Lopez AB, Ortiz HC, Velazquez JN, Cala LM. Incidence of respiratory symptoms and the association with air pollution in preschoolers: a multilevel analysis. Cadernos de saude publica. 2010;26(7):1411-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2010000700020

Stein PD, Beemath A, Matta F, Weg JG, Yusen RD, Hales CA, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients with acute pulmonary embolism: data from PIOPED II. The American journal of medicine. 2007;120(10):871-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.03.024

Soler JK, Okkes I, Oskam S, Van Boven K, Zivotic P, Jevtic M, et al. The interpretation of the reasons for encounter 'cough' and 'sadness' in four international family medicine populations. Informatics in primary care. 2012;20(1):25-39. https://doi.org/10.14236/jhi.v20i1.45

Ammar KA, Jacobsen SJ, Mahoney DW, Kors JA, Redfield MM, Burnett JC, Jr., et al. Prevalence and prognostic significance of heart failure stages: application of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association heart failure staging criteria in the community. Circulation. 2007;115(12):1563-70. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.666818

Oga T, Tsukino M, Hajiro T, Ikeda A, Nishimura K. Analysis of longitudinal changes in dyspnea of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. Respiratory research. 2012;13:85. https://doi.org/10.1186/1465-9921-13-85

Simoni M, Baldacci S, Puntoni R, Pistelli F, Farchi S, Lo Presti E, et al. Respiratory symptoms/diseases and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in never smoker Italian women. Respiratory medicine. 2007;101(3):531-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2006.06.021

Lokke A, Ulrik CS, Dahl R, Plauborg L, Dollerup J, Kristiansen LC, et al. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice. Copd. 2012;9(5):458-65. https://doi.org/10.3109/15412555.2012.685118

Lyngso AM, Gottlieb V, Backer V, Nybo B, Ostergaard MS, Jorgensen HL, et al. Early detection of COPD in primary care: the Copenhagen COPD screening project. Copd. 2013;10(2):208-15. https://doi.org/10.3109/15412555.2012.714426

McDonald VM, Higgins I, Simpson JL, Gibson PG. The importance of clinical management problems in older people with COPD and asthma: do patients and physicians agree? Primary care respiratory journal : journal of the General Practice Airways Group. 2011;20(4):389-95. https://doi.org/10.4104/pcrj.2011.00025

Duckitt R, Palsson R, Bosanska L, Dagna L, Durusu TM, Vardi M, et al. Common diagnoses in internal medicine in Europe 2009: a pan-European, multi-centre survey. European journal of internal medicine. 2010;21(5):449-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2010.06.012

Wilkins JR, 3rd, Engelhardt HL, Rublaitus SM, Crawford JM, Fisher JL, Bean TL. Prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among Ohio cash grain farmers. American journal of industrial medicine. 1999;35(2):150-63. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199902)35:2<150::AID-AJIM7>3.0.CO;2-5

Currow DC, Plummer JL, Crockett A, Abernethy AP. A community population survey of prevalence and severity of dyspnea in adults. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2009;38(4):533-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.01.006

Gui P, Ebihara S, Kanezaki M, Suda C, Nikkuni E, Ebihara T, et al. Gender differences in perceptions of urge to cough and dyspnea induced by citric acid in healthy never smokers. Chest. 2010;138(5):1166-72. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.10-0588

Hardie JA, Vollmer WM, Sonia Buist A, Bakke P, Mørkve O. Respiratory symptoms and obstructive pulmonary disease in a population aged over 70 years. Respiratory medicine. 2005;99(2):186-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2004.06.006

Soriano JB, Rigo F, Guerrero D, Yanez A, Forteza JF, Frontera G, et al. High prevalence of undiagnosed airflow limitation in patients with cardiovascular disease. Chest. 2010;137(2):333-40. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.09-1264

Arnaudis B, Lairez O, Escamilla R, Fouilloux A, Fournier P, Monteil B, et al. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity on symptoms and prognosis in patients with systolic heart failure. Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society. 2012;101(9):717-26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00392-012-0450-4

Brenner S, Guder G, Berliner D, Deubner N, Frohlich K, Ertl G, et al. Airway obstruction in systolic heart failure--COPD or congestion? International journal of cardiology. 2013;168(3):1910-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.12.083

Simon ST, Bausewein C, Schildmann E, Higginson IJ, Magnussen H, Scheve C, et al. Episodic breathlessness in patients with advanced disease: a systematic review. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2013;45(3):561-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.02.022

Chiu TY, Hu WY, Lue BH, Yao CA, Chen CY, Wakai S. Dyspnea and its correlates in taiwanese patients with terminal cancer. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2004;28(2):123-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2003.11.009

Stone P, Hardy J, Broadley K, Tookman AJ, Kurowska A, A'Hern R. Fatigue in advanced cancer: a prospective controlled cross-sectional study. British journal of cancer. 1999;79(9-10):1479-86. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6690236

Svendsen RP, Stovring H, Hansen BL, Kragstrup J, Sondergaard J, Jarbol DE. Prevalence of cancer alarm symptoms: a population-based cross-sectional study. Scandinavian journal of primary health care. 2010;28(3):132-7. https://doi.org/10.3109/02813432.2010.505412

Potter J, Hami F, Bryan T, Quigley C. Symptoms in 400 patients referred to palliative care services: prevalence and patterns. Palliative medicine. 2003;17(4):310-4. https://doi.org/10.1191/0269216303pm760oa

Campbell ML. Dyspnea prevalence, trajectories, and measurement in critical care and at life's end. Current opinion in supportive and palliative care. 2012;6(2):168-71. https://doi.org/10.1097/SPC.0b013e328352b67f

Shah AB, Udeoji DU, Baraghoush A, Bharadwaj P, Yennurajalingam S, Schwarz ER. An evaluation of the prevalence and severity of pain and other symptoms in acute decompensated heart failure. Journal of palliative medicine. 2013;16(1):87-90. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2012.0248

Vaz Fragoso CA, Beavers DP, Hankinson JL, Flynn G, Berra K, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Respiratory impairment and dyspnea and their associations with physical inactivity and mobility in sedentary community-dwelling older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(4):622-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12738

Ahmed T, Steward JA, O'Mahony MS. Dyspnoea and mortality in older people in the community: a 10-year follow-up. Age and ageing. 2012;41(4):545-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afs049

Rodriguez LA, Rey JJ, Herrera AB, Castro H, Niederbacher J, Vera LM, et al. Respiratory symptoms associated with asthma prevalence and air pollution in preschool children. Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2010;30(1):15-22.

Nystad W, Nafstad P, Harris JR. Physical activity affects the prevalence of reported wheeze. European journal of epidemiology. 2001;17(3):209-12. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017926403763

Turcotte H, Langdeau J-B, Thibault G, Boulet L-P. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in an athlete population. Respiratory medicine. 2003;97(8):955-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0954-6111(03)00123-9

Karunanayake CP, Rennie DC, Pahwa P, Chen Y, Dosman JA. Predictors of respiratory symptoms in a rural Canadian population: A longitudinal study of respiratory health. Canadian respiratory journal : journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society. 2011;18(3):149-53. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/838703

Frank PI, Hazell ML, Morris JA, Linehan MF, Frank TL. A longitudinal study of changes in respiratory status in young adults, 1993-2001. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2007;11(3):338-43.

Suzuki K, Tanaka H, Kaneko S, Nishi M, Teramoto S, Itoh S, et al. Respiratory Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in 3,197 Pulmonologist-Based Asthmatic Patients with a Highly Prevalent Use of Inhaled Corticosteroid. Journal of Asthma. 2003;40(3):243-50. https://doi.org/10.1081/JAS-120018317

Desalu OO, Salami AK, Fawibe AE. Prevalence of cough among adults in an urban community in Nigeria. West African journal of medicine. 2011;30(5):337-41.

Heyworth J, McCaul K. Prevalence of non-specific health symptoms in South Australia. International journal of environmental health research. 2001;11(4):291-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603120120070856

Chung KF, Pavord ID. Prevalence, pathogenesis, and causes of chronic cough. The Lancet. 2008;371(9621):1364-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60595-4

Stephen GA, McRill C, Mack MD, O'Rourke MK, Flood TJ, Lebowitz MD. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and asthma prevalence in a U.S.-Mexico border region. Archives of environmental health. 2003;58(3):156-62. https://doi.org/10.3200/AEOH.58.3.156-162

Estevez JA, Rojas NY, Rodriguez AI. Occupational exposure to air pollutants: particulate matter and respiratory symptoms affecting traffic-police in Bogota. Revista de salud publica. 2013;15(6):889-902.

Arenas N, Torres E, Durango C, Cuervo L, Coronado S, Gomez A. Detecting active tuberculosis in Calarca-Quindio, Colombia, during 2005. Revista de salud publica. 2008;10(2):279-89.

Garcia I, De la Hoz F, Reyes Y, Montoya P, Guerrero MI, Leon CI. Respiratory syntomatic prevalence, infection and tuberculosis disease and associated factors: population-based study. Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2004;24 Supp 1:124-31.

Henao SC, Sierra CR, Sanchez EA, Saavedra A. Search for tuberculosis in patients with the respiratory symptoms in four hospitals of Bogota D.C. Revista de salud publica. 2007;9(3):408-19.

Moreira CM, Zandonade E, Lacerda T, Maciel EL. Respiratory symptomatics among patients at primary health clinics in Vitoria, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. Cadernos de saude publica. 2010;26(8):1619-26. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2010000800015

Caceres M, Orozco LC. Delayed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a particular part of Colombia. Revista de salud publica. 2008;10(1):94-104.

Swindells S, Komarow L, Tripathy S, Cain KP, MacGregor RR, Achkar JM, et al. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5253. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2013;17(4):532-9. https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.12.0737

Zhang J, Lin XF, Bai CX. Comparison of clinical features between non-smokers with COPD and smokers with COPD: a retrospective observational study. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2014;9:57-63. https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S52416

Herrera AB, Rodriguez LA, Niederbacher J. Biological pollution and its relationship with respiratory symptoms indicative of asthma, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2011;31(3):357-71. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v31i3.364

Rongo LM, Besselink A, Douwes J, Barten F, Msamanga GI, Dolmans WM, et al. Respiratory symptoms and dust exposure among male workers in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002;44(12):1153-60. https://doi.org/10.1097/00043764-200212000-00009

Song WJ, Morice AH, Kim MH, Lee SE, Jo EJ, Lee SM, et al. Cough in the elderly population: relationships with multiple comorbidity. PloS one. 2013;8(10):e78081. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078081

Ryerson CJ, Abbritti M, Ley B, Elicker BM, Jones KD, Collard HR. Cough predicts prognosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Respirology. 2011;16(6):969-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.01996.x

McGarvey LP, Ing AJ. Idiopathic cough, prevalence and underlying mechanisms. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2004;17(6):435-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2004.09.012

Wang X, Yu IT, Wong TW, Yano E. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in coal miners: looking into the effects of simple pneumoconiosis. American journal of industrial medicine. 1999;35(2):124-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199902)35:2<124::AID-AJIM3>3.0.CO;2-M

Roche N, Perez T, Neukirch F, Carre P, Terrioux P, Pouchain D, et al. High prevalence of COPD symptoms in the general population contrasting with low awareness of the disease. Revue des maladies respiratoires. 2011;28(7):e58-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2011.06.007

Drummond MB, Kirk GD, Ricketts EP, McCormack MC, Hague JC, McDyer JF, et al. Cross sectional analysis of respiratory symptoms in an injection drug user cohort: the impact of obstructive lung disease and HIV. BMC pulmonary medicine. 2010;10:27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2466-10-27

Rojas CM, Villegas SL, Pineros HM, Chamorro EM, Duran CE, Hernandez EL, et al. Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Cali, Colombia. Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2010;30(4):482-91. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v30i4.286

Danuser B, Weber C, Kunzli N, Schindler C, Nowak D. Respiratory symptoms in Swiss farmers: an epidemiological study of risk factors. American journal of industrial medicine. 2001;39(4):410-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.1032

Brown CA, Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm among male cigar and pipe smokers: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study. Thorax. 1993;48(11):1163-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.48.11.1163

Harju T, Makinen T, Nayha S, Laatikainen T, Jousilahti P, Hassi J. Cold-related respiratory symptoms in the general population. The clinical respiratory journal. 2010;4(3):176-85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-699X.2009.00172.x

Getahun H, Kittikraisak W, Heilig CM, Corbett EL, Ayles H, Cain KP, et al. Development of a standardized screening rule for tuberculosis in people living with HIV in resource-constrained settings: individual participant data meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS medicine. 2011;8(1):e1000391. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000391

Kogler H, Metzdorf N, Glaab T, Welte T. Preselection of patients at risk for COPD by two simple screening questions. Respiratory medicine. 2010;104(7):1012-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2010.01.005

Sansores RH, Ramirez-Venegas A, Hernandez-Zenteno R, Mayar-Maya ME, Perez-Bautista OG, Velazquez Uncal M. Prevalence and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among smokers at risk. A comparative study of case-finding vs. screening strategies. Respiratory medicine. 2013;107(4):580-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2012.12.010

Song EK, Moser DK, Rayens MK, Lennie TA. Symptom clusters predict event-free survival in patients with heart failure. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing. 2010;25(4):284-91. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0b013e3181cfbcbb

Hanania NA, Mannino DM, Yawn BP, Mapel DW, Martinez FJ, Donohue JF, et al. Predicting risk of airflow obstruction in primary care: Validation of the lung function questionnaire (LFQ). Respiratory medicine. 2010;104(8):1160-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2010.02.009

Montes de Oca M, Talamo C, Halbert RJ, Perez-Padilla R, Lopez MV, Muino A, et al. Health status perception and airflow obstruction in five Latin American cities: the PLATINO study. Respiratory medicine. 2009;103(9):1376-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2009.03.005

Schiavi E, Stirbulov R, Hernández Vecino R, Mercurio S, Di Boscio V. COPD Screening in Primary Care in Four Latin American Countries: Methodology of the PUMA Study. Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition). 2014;50(11):469-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arbr.2014.09.010

Accordini S, Cappa V, Braggion M, Corsico AG, Bugiani M, Pirina P, et al. The impact of diagnosed and undiagnosed current asthma in the general adult population. International archives of allergy and immunology. 2011;155(4):403-11. https://doi.org/10.1159/000320780

Berard E, Bongard V, Roche N, Perez T, Brouquieres D, Taraszkiewicz D, et al. Undiagnosed airflow limitation in patients at cardiovascular risk. Archives of cardiovascular diseases. 2011;104(12):619-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2011.10.002

Roche N, Dalmay F, Perez T, Kuntz C, Vergnenegre A, Neukirch F, et al. Impact of chronic airflow obstruction in a working population. The European respiratory journal. 2008;31(6):1227-33. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00089607

Cómo citar
Bastidas Goyes, A., Villán Gaona, J., Betancourt López, V., Suarez Niño, A., & Hincapié Díaz, G. A. (2017). Prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios y riesgo de obstrucción al flujo aéreo en Ginebra - Valle del Cauca. Revista Med, 25(2), 42-54. https://doi.org/10.18359/rmed.3207
Publicado
2017-09-25
Sección
Artículos