Osteoporosis asociada a glucocorticoides, una aproximación práctica. Revisión

  • James Milthon Yurgaky S. Universidad Militar Nueva Granada
  • Ana María Arredondo G. Universidad Militar Nueva Granada
Palabras clave: osteoporosis, glucocorticoides, toxicidad de medicamentos

Resumen

La osteoporosis es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia en el mundo y una de las causas más importantes de su forma secundaria es el uso crónico de glucocorticoides; aproximadamente el 0,5% de la población mundial es consumidora crónica de estos medicamentos, dadas sus múltiples indicaciones en el tratamiento de enfermedades reumáticas, dermatológicas, pulmonares o renales entre otras. Los pacientes con osteoporosis inducida por glucocorticoides presentan complicaciones como la fractura de cadera, situación que genera altos costos a los sistemas de salud. Por lo tanto, es muy importante hacer un diagnóstico rápido para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, debido a que la prevención y el tratamiento de la enfermedad son menos costosos que el manejo de sus complicaciones. Se consideran en riesgo de osteoporosis todos aquellos pacientes que toman 5 mg diarios de prednisolona o más, por un tiempo mínimo de tres meses; a estos pacientes se les debe realizar una densitometría ósea (DXA), que es el método diagnóstico de elección para todos los tipos de osteoporosis. Un T Score diagnóstico para osteoporosis u osteopenia indican el inicio de tratamiento específico principalmente con bifosfonatos, entre los cuales el sedronato y alendronato han demostrado mejor efectividad. Otra de las indicaciones para el tratamiento específico estaría basada en el riesgo de fractura definido por la OMS con el Score FRAX. Finalmente, la prevención se debe hacer en todo paciente usuario crónico de glucocorticoides con medidas generales que implican cambios en el estilo de vida y la ingesta diaria de 1000 a 1500 mg de calcio elemental y 600 u de vitamina D.

Biografía del autor/a

James Milthon Yurgaky S., Universidad Militar Nueva Granada
Internista, Residente Programa de Endocrinología, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia
Ana María Arredondo G., Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

Residente Programa de Medicina Interna, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia

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Biografía del autor/a

James Milthon Yurgaky S., Universidad Militar Nueva Granada
Internista, Residente Programa de Endocrinología, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia
Ana María Arredondo G., Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

Residente Programa de Medicina Interna, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Yurgaky S., J. M., & Arredondo G., A. M. (2010). Osteoporosis asociada a glucocorticoides, una aproximación práctica. Revisión. Revista Med, 18(2), 210-220. https://doi.org/10.18359/rmed.1313
Publicado
2010-11-30
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