Diversidad de los compuestos orgánicos bioactivos de origen natural: una singularidad manifestada por la plasticidad en el metabolismo secundario

  • Kátherin Suárez-Medina Universidad Militar Nueva Granada.
  • Ericsson Coy-Barrera Universidad Militar Nueva Granada.
Palabras clave: Metabolismo Secundario Vegetal, Bioactivos, Productos Naturales, Sesquiterpenlactonas, Fenólicos

Resumen

El uso de compuestos orgánicos de origen natural (i.e., metabolitos secundarios) es una de las formas de aprovechamiento de los organismos más comunes e importantes, entre los que se destacan plantas y microorganismos. La utilidad de estos compuestos se enfoca a diversos escenarios, en el que se resaltan los productos bioactivos, los cuales marcan una fuerte presencia en el control de enfermedades y dolencias. Aunque ya se cuenta con información substancial y significativa relativa a la función que cumplen tales metabolitos secundarios en los organismos que los producen, todavía se desconoce mucho al respecto, sobretodo en el caso de las plantas. Esto se debe quizá a que, en cierta medida, el metabolismo secundario se suele a menudo considerar aparte de las funciones esenciales de la célula. No obstante, existe evidencia de la clara y estrecha relación que se presenta entre metabolismo celular fundamental y las vías bioquímicas que conducen a la síntesis de metabolitos secundarios. Lo anterior permite que el metabolismo secundario se regule por una sofisticada red de comunicación y señalización a escala celular y tisular, lo que le permite manifestarse con el nivel de plasticidad requerido para adaptarse e interactuar con su entorno. Por tanto, debido al hecho que el metabolismo secundario sea tan versátil, permite la biosíntesis de diversos grupos de estructuras biológicamente activas que, por consiguiente, trasciende en la acción y roles de tales productos secundarios, como es el caso de los compuestos fenólicos y las sesquiterpenlactonas.

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Cómo citar
Suárez-Medina, K., & Coy-Barrera, E. (2016). Diversidad de los compuestos orgánicos bioactivos de origen natural: una singularidad manifestada por la plasticidad en el metabolismo secundario. Revista Facultad De Ciencias Básicas, 12(2), 252-269. https://doi.org/10.18359/rfcb.2031
Publicado
2016-07-25
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